Cyclamen's world
to toppagehistory
how to chose, carevariety of cyclamen
about uscyclamen in China
recent sceneslink

Cyclamen's history

It is thought that some species in the wild around Palestine, Syria brought to west Europe in 17th, then distributed in France, Belgie, England, Holand, Germany. Cyclamen persicum is the only one species distributed these days as a garden caltivar, although many species exist in the wild like Cyclamen repandum, Cyclamen coum, Cyclamen cilicium, Cyclamen persicum .
Horticulture was for privilege class. Workers of horticulturing were hired by them that population of that privilege class were quit few compared to others. We can see gorgeous garden attached to palace in Europe, such as Versailles. It is because of that. However, Industrial revolution started in 1760s in England, then in France in 1830s, then general public had become richer and not only people with privilege class, but also general public had started to enjoy horticulture.
Cyclamen was familiarized in 19th. Most of colors existed except scarlet and salmon in 1860s. It seems that large flowered caltivar was invented in England and German in 1870s. Salmon was invented in 1890s, scarlet was invented in 1900s. Fringe was invented in 1890s. 'Victoria', one of typical caltivar of fringe was invented in 1906.

'Straus' (left) and 'Victoria' (right) (ref. Cyclamen in Ena - history of 80 years -, Association of Ena floriculture studying)

Growing cyclamen in Gifu area, Japan, IZUMI Cyclamen Nursery is there, was started by Mr. Koju ITO in Tono, Ena-city, in 1920s. One wife (German) of American engineer, visited there to construct Ooi dam, recommended him to grow cyclamen. Cyclamen was not popular, of couse, and it was not famillier how to grow and how to get seeds, but he found eventually an advertisement that showed cyclamen on one magazine got from abroad, then tried to get catalogue. It took about a month to mail from Germany to Japan at that time, however, he finally succeeded to get catalogue and purchase order sheet from Binnewies KG, Germany.
Temperature in Gifu area could be -15 degree in winter, so that heat insulation facility was necessary for pot culture. Plastic film greenhouse didn't exit at that time, so he invented original facility called "flame" showed bellow. It is said that it was very hard because no reference was there.
Anyway, cultivation of cyclamen in Ena, Gifu area was started.

flowering half basement flame method (ref. Cyclamen in Ena - history of 80 years -, Association of Ena floriculture studying)

Cultivation of cyclamen was tried in Agi area, next to Ena, by Masao TAKAMI after the World War II. However, Agi area has a problem on distribution of flowers, so that seed and seedling were mainly distributed. And nursery produced cyclamen mainly cultured rice, cyclamen seemed to be side job.
Nursery of cyclamen had increased in 1970s, some of them changed from rice or vegitable manufacturing. Consumption and its caltivar of cyclamen had expanded as well as landry machine, television, and automobile etc. as the economy growed up. Most of cyclamen was red colored in 1950s, then Europian caltivar import started around 1955. Cyclamen that color is pastel had become main products around 1975, and F1 had become popular.
Caltivation technology has also improved. Half basement "flame" method was invented first, then greenhouse is common way these days. Subirrigation is puplar way for watering these days.

Reference : Cyclamen in Ena - history of 80 years -, Association of Ena floriculture studying