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Cultivating technology

sowing of the seeds
Please pay attention to next subjects for better germination rate, and for sound seedlings.

1. temperature
2. moisture content and humidity
3. seed disinfection
4. sowing soil
5. seed bed
6. management after germination

1. temperature

Optimum temperature for germination is 16 to 20 °C. Keep 17 °C for 20 days after sowing, then keep 20 °C and they are germinated about 25 days after sowing.
optimum temperature have about 2 °C range depend on cultivar, however most cultivar are geminated well when aimed 18 °C. The period of germination after sowing is 22 to 23 days if emvironment is perfect, but generally it's 25 to 30 days.
The germination percentage is good when germination period is above. The worse condition is, the worse germination percentage is.
Stay seed bed where the change of temperature is small if you don't have any equipment or room for germination.
In Nakatsugawa, IZUMI cyclamen nursery is there, (low temperature seems to be under 20 deg. when Aug. 15) optimum season for sowing is early to middle September. September 20 to October 10 is optimum in Nagoya or Gifu. Use heater when cold because sowing is delayed.

2. moisture content and humidity
4. sowing soil

Water and oxygen are needed for germination. Soil can be separate as solid phase, water phase, vapor phase, and soil contains many vapor soil is utilised for sowing soil. ( mixed soil of peat, vermiculite, perlite etc.)
In Japan, we utilise mixed peat for sowing in market. Made in Canada is best. Made in Japan seem to be smaller vapor phase, and too much fertilizer for cyclamen.
Almost 100% of humidity is neccesary for germination, however, too much water may cover the vapor phase part of the soil. Then germination may be worse because of less oxygen.

About moisture of the soil
1. put soil into the container
2. level the soil and press a little
3. put water
4. put glass sheet of 10 to 15 cm square on the soil, and press lightly

It would be to much moisture if the water comes up fully between soil and glass sheet when press the glass sheet lightly. If wet area of glass sheet is less than 50%, it's OK. When wet area is almost zero, we have two choise. It would be OK, and it would be no good. It would be OK when soil have enough moisture, and keep the moisture level enough by managing or in the germination room. However, Moisture of sowing soil is quite important for germination gercentage so that keep attention.

Soil covering is about double or triple of seed diameter. Mixed peat or vermiculite would be good.

About fertilizer
Sowing soil for cyclamen has less nitrogen compared with the soil for vegitable. N:30mg, P:50mg, K:100mg per 100g or 100dl.
Put liquid fertilizer when few fertilizer depend on the growing after germination.
Too much fertilizer (especially nitrogen) makes seedlings week against disease. Infection when seedling stage while cold temperature, never fall ill at that time (Dec. to Mar.) however, fall ill when temperature increase, and become warm after May. It cannot prevent. Pay attention.

How to make sowing soil
Mix grass charcoal, leaf mold, perlite, vermiculite, soil etc. It's OK when no soil. Use much vapor phase soil. EC0.1 to 0.2 ms/cm with soil, EC0.3 ms/cm without soil, is recommended. Sowing soil be sterilized by vapor. (more than 1 hour after highest temperature, 2 to 2.5 hours after vaporing)

3. seed disinfection

All our seeds are washed enough with clean water so that it's no problem to use them without disinfection when sowing soil and moisture of the soil is clean enough. IZUMI Cyclamen Nursery use 1000times liquid of "Orthocide" (captan), put seeds in it 5 to 10 minutes, then dry in shadow, and sow. Benlate (Benomyl) also could be used.
Germination percentage would be quite bad when this chemical is not dried.

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